Photo: The Five Stages of Grief.
Mental Health

Coping Mechanisms for Each Stage of Grief and How to Support Someone Going Through Grief.

Grief is a universal human experience that can be difficult to navigate. Despite its universality, it is often misunderstood and can leave those experiencing it feeling isolated and misunderstood. This article aims to shed light on the stages of grief, providing a comprehensive guide to understanding and navigating this complex process. By gaining a deeper understanding of grief, we can better support ourselves and others through this challenging time. Whether you’re currently experiencing grief or seeking to support someone who is, this guide will provide valuable insights into the journey of grief.

What is Grief?

Grief is a deep sorrow that someone experiences in response to a loss. It’s a natural response to losing something or someone we’ve formed an attachment to. This loss can come in many forms, such as the death of a loved one, the end of a relationship, the loss of a job, or a change in health status.

Grief is more than just emotional suffering. It can also involve physical, cognitive, behavioral, social, and philosophical dimensions. People may experience a range of feelings including sadness, anger, guilt, anxiety, loneliness, fatigue, helplessness, shock, yearning, and numbness.

Note that grief is a highly individual process and there’s no ‘right’ way to grieve. Everyone experiences grief differently and it can be influenced by a variety of factors including personality, coping style, life experience, faith, and the nature of the loss itself.

What Are the Five Stages of Grief?

The Five Stages of Grief, also known as the Kübler-Ross model, is a theory first introduced by Swiss American psychiatrist Elisabeth Kübler-Ross in her 1969 book “On Death and Dying”. The model outlines five stages that individuals go through when dealing with grief and loss. These stages are:

  1. Denial: This is the initial stage where individuals refuse to accept the reality of their loss. It’s a defense mechanism that buffers the immediate shock of the loss.
  2. Anger: As the masking effects of denial begin to wear off, reality and its pain re-emerge. The individual may feel intense anger and may direct it towards other people, a higher power, or life in general.
  3. Bargaining: During this stage, individuals often dwell on what could have been done to prevent the loss. Common thoughts are “If only…” and “What if…”.
  4. Depression: A period of sadness and regret dominates this stage. Individuals may feel overwhelmed by their loss and experience feelings of hopelessness.
  5. Acceptance: The final stage of grief is acceptance. Individuals come to terms with their loss, acknowledging the reality of their situation.


Denial is the first stage of the grief process. It serves as a defense mechanism to mitigate the immediate shock of the loss. During this stage, you may find it difficult to believe the loss has occurred. You may feel numb or disconnected from reality, as if you’re in a dream or alternate reality where the loss didn’t happen.

This denial helps you to pace your feelings of grief, letting in only as much as you can handle at the time. It’s a way for your mind to tell you that absorbing the reality of your loss is too painful.

For example, if a loved one has passed away, you might expect them to walk through the door at any moment, or reach for the phone to call them before remembering that they’re gone.

Denial can provide temporary relief from the pain of loss, but you have to not become stuck in this stage. Acknowledging the reality of the loss is a necessary step in the healing process.


As the reality of the loss sets in, the second stage of grief, anger, may surface. This anger can be directed towards various entities: oneself, the person who has been lost, other people perceived to be involved, or even the world at large. It’s a way of externalizing the pain and hurt that is felt inside.

During this stage, you might ask questions like “Why me?” or “How could this happen?”. You may feel a sense of injustice about your loss. This anger can manifest in different ways, including irritation, bitterness, or resentment.

You have to understand that anger is a necessary part of the healing process. It’s a bridge from the denial stage to the process of healing. Anger helps us to externalize our pain, instead of bottling it up inside. It’s a natural response to feeling abandoned and experiencing deep hurt.

But it’s important to express this anger in healthy ways and not let it consume you. This could involve talking about your feelings with someone you trust, writing in a journal, or engaging in physical activities like exercise.


Bargaining is the third stage of grief, characterized by an attempt to negotiate with a higher power or life itself to reverse or lessen the loss. During this stage, you can often find yourself consumed by “what if” and “if only” statements.

For example, you may think things like “If only I had been more attentive, this wouldn’t have happened” or “What if I devote myself to helping others, can this loss be reversed?”. This bargaining is a line of defense against the emotions of grief, and it’s a way for individuals to postpone the pain of the reality.

Bargaining is a normal stage of grief. It’s a way for us to process the reality of the loss and to try to make sense of why the loss occurred. It can also lead to feelings of guilt and regret.

It’s okay to feel this way. It’s a part of the process. But also remember that the outcome was not your fault. It’s important during this stage to avoid getting stuck in a loop of “what if” and “if only” statements.


Depression is the fourth stage of grief and is often characterized by deep sadness and regret. During this stage, you may feel overwhelmed by your loss and experience feelings of hopelessness. You may withdraw from life, feel numb, live in a fog, and not want to get out of bed. The world might seem too much and too overwhelming for youto face.

You might question whether there’s any point in going on alone. Why go on at all? Depression after a loss is too often seen as unnatural or something to be snapped out of. It’s important to understand that this depression is not a sign of mental illness. It’s the appropriate response to a great loss.

This stage feels like it will last forever but I need you to understand that this depression is not a sign of mental illness. It’s a normal response to the realistic sadness of the loss.


Acceptance is the final stage of grief. This stage is not about being okay with the loss. Rather, it’s about accepting the reality that our loved one is physically gone and recognizing that this new reality is the permanent reality.

In this stage, you may start to look forward and plan things for the future again. You will start to engage with friends and family members more and even seek out others who have experienced a similar loss.

Acceptance does not mean that you no longer feel the pain of your loss. But you’ve learned to live with it. The anger, the denial, the bargaining, the depression, they may feel all of these again from time to time, but they’re not as intense or as prolonged.

This is not a period of happiness and must be distinguished from depression. It’s a time of adjustment and readjustment. It’s a time of remembrance and cherishing the memories that once were and acknowledging that those memories are all that’s left.

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The Grieving Process is Not Linear.

The stages of grief don’t happen in a set sequence, and they’re not meant to be a complete or exact guide to the grieving process. Instead, they serve as a general framework that helps us understand and put into context how we may feel when we grieve.

People do not go through all these stages in a predictable order. You might feel one, then another, and then back to the first one again. You might even experience more than one stage at a time. It’s not uncommon for someone to switch between stages, or to experience some stages more intensely than others.

For example, you might find yourself feeling predominantly depressed with periods of anger or bargaining interspersed. Or you might skip some stages entirely. Everyone’s experience with grief is different, and there’s no “right” way to grieve.

How to Support Someone in Grief.

Supporting someone who is grieving can be a challenging task. It’s often hard to know what to say or do. Here are some tips on how you can provide emotional support:

  1. Be There for Them: Sometimes, the best thing you can do is simply be there. Let them know that they’re not alone and that you’re there to support them.
  2. Listen: Allow them to express their feelings without judgment. Don’t rush to offer advice or solutions. Sometimes, they may not need advice but just a listening ear.
  3. Acknowledge Their Pain: Don’t try to downplay their feelings or distract them from their pain. Instead, acknowledge their loss and validate all of their feelings.
  4. Be Patient: Everyone grieves differently and at their own pace. Be patient with them and give them the time they need to heal.
  5. Encourage Self-Care: Encourage them to take care of themselves physically, emotionally, and mentally. This could include eating healthy, getting enough sleep, exercising, and seeking professional help if needed.
  6. Help with Practical Matters: If appropriate, offer help with practical matters such as meals, chores, or paperwork.
  7. Check-In Regularly: Keep in touch regularly to show that you care about their well-being.

It’s not about making their pain go away – it’s about providing comfort and support as they navigate through their grief.

The Key Takeaway.

Grief is a complex and deeply personal process, but understanding the stages of grief can provide a framework to help navigate this challenging experience. These stages are not linear and everyone’s experience with grief is different. There’s no “right” way to grieve and it’s okay to feel what you’re feeling.

Whether you’re experiencing grief yourself or supporting someone who is, be patient, compassionate, and understanding. Grief is not something to be rushed or ignored, but something to be acknowledged and worked through.

In the end, it’s not about “moving on” or “getting over it,” but about learning to live with the loss and finding a way to move forward.

FAQs on The Stages of Grief.

Is it normal to skip some stages of grief?

Yes, it’s completely normal. The stages of grief are not a strict sequence that everyone follows. Some people might skip some stages entirely or experience some stages more intensely than others.

Can I experience more than one stage of grief at a time?

Yes. It’s not uncommon for someone to shuffle between stages, or to experience more than one stage at a time.

Does everyone go through all the stages of grief?

Not necessarily. Everyone’s experience with grief is different, and there’s no “right” way to grieve.

What does acceptance mean in the context of grief?

Acceptance in the context of grief does not mean being okay with the loss. Rather, it’s about accepting the reality that our loved one is physically gone and recognizing that this new reality is the permanent reality.

Is it okay to revisit the stages of grief?

Yes, it’s okay to revisit stages. It’s also okay to not experience every stage and it’s okay if your experience doesn’t match up exactly with these stages.

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